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renal hemodynamics

Prostaglandin Basics

A few basics about the prostaglandins, a major player in renal hemodynamics. Prostaglandins are fatty acid-based compounds which carry out a variety of cellular effects. The pathway begins with phospholipid within the plasma membrane, which is converted to…

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The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study is one of the landmark papers of Nephrology. The 1994 NEJM paper describing the initial results is freely available, and there are many interesting follow-up studies using the same…

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Cardiorenal Syndrome

Any nephrology fellow running the Consult Service will rapidly realize that heart failure and renal failure often go hand in hand, earning the moniker “cardiorenal syndrome.” The thought here is that decreased forward flow from pump failure results…

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What is the Resistive Index?

Often on the official radiology report for a renal ultrasound with Doppler flows, a number called the “resistive index” is listed. What does this number mean and how is it derived? The resistive index (RI) measures the resistance…

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How To Measure Renal Plasma Flow (RPF)

Question: How is renal plasma flow (RPF) measured? Answer: By measuring para-aminohippurate (PAH) clearance. How does it work? Ideally, one would simply choose a substance which is neither synthesized nor metabolized by the kidney; the amount of such…

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