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renal pathophysiology

Renal Adaptations to Hyperkalemia

Are ESRD patients “protected” from the arrhythmogenic effects of hyperkalemia if they are chronically exposed to elevated potassium levels? I’m not sure if there is a clear answer to this question, but it is certainly a relevant question….

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Basic Renal Anatomy

Here’s a video describing basic renal anatomy. Reviewing the vasculature is always a good idea: renal artery–>segmental arteries–>interlobar arteries–>arcuate arteries–>interlobular arteries–>afferent arterioles–>glomerular capillaries–>efferent arteriole.

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Review: The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

The juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) is located between the afferent arteriole and the returning distal convoluted tubule of the same nephron. It is responsible for regulating both intrarenal (tubuloglomerular feedback) and extrarenal (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone) mechanisms necessary to maintain both renal…

The Brenner Hypothesis

The Brenner Hypothesis–developed by Barry Brenner of the Brigham and Women’s Hospital, author of the well-known Brenner & Rector “The Kidney” textbook–states that individuals with a congenital reduction in nephron number have a much greater likelihood of developing…

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How To Measure Renal Plasma Flow (RPF)

Question: How is renal plasma flow (RPF) measured? Answer: By measuring para-aminohippurate (PAH) clearance. How does it work? Ideally, one would simply choose a substance which is neither synthesized nor metabolized by the kidney; the amount of such…

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