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Potassium-Sparing Diuretics

The potassium-sparing diuretics consist of the following 4 medications–only some of which (spironolactone & eplerenone in the list below) are structurally similar.   Spironolactone is an antagonist of the aldosterone receptor, which like other steroid receptors is an…

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Pendred Syndrome

Pendred Syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the solute carrier family 26 member 4 gene (SLC26A4) which has some relevance to nephrology and acid-base metabolism. Its main phenotypic manifestations are thyroid goiter and sensorineural…

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Thiazide-Induced Hyperglycemia

In recent years, there has been the suggestion that thiazide diuretics–long considered a front-line therapy for hypertension based on the ALLHAT study and others–may increase the risk of diabetes. Subsequent retrospective analysis of other major historical cohorts by…

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ENAC Mutations

The ENAC channel in the distal tubule is responsible for sodium reabsorption. It is comprised of 2 alpha, 1 beta, and 1 gamma subunit with each encoded by a separate gene. Interestingly, mutations in ENAC can lead to…

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Diuretic effects

Diuretics act at the apical surface of specific segments of the renal tubular epithelium. Question: how do diuretics get to the apical surface? One could imagine several such scenarios, such as diuretics getting filtered at the glomerulus and…

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