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Don’t Eat the Leaves

Hyperoxaluria is an important risk factor for kidney stones, approximately 80% of which are primarily composed of calcium oxalate. Hyperoxaluria is typically diagnosed by performing a 24 hour urine collection and levels above 45 mg/day are considered abnormal…

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Fruit Flies and Kidney Stones

Developing accurate animal models of human diseases is a well-established research goal but a recent paper reporting a new animal model of nephrolithiasis caught my attention. Kidney stones are an important cause of morbidity and dealing with them…

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From acid to nephrocalcinosis to stones

Can you have an acidosis with normal serum bicarbonate? Of course you can, it’s just incomplete. Incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis (idRTA) that is. RTA was first described in 1935, confirmed as a renal tubular disorder in 1946,…

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History of Cystoscopy

I stumbled across a bit of Nephrology/Urology history the other day while strolling around a hospital in Paris: this plaque commemorating one of the key steps in the invention of ureteroscopy and cystoscopy. The plaque can be found…

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Differential diagnosis of hypouricemia

Hypouricemia is defined as a serum uric acid level less than 2mg/dL. Although it is generally considered benign, hypouricemia has been associated with several important conditions relevant to nephrologists, including acute kidney injury, uric acid nephrolithiasis, and SIADH…

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Calcium Phosphate Stones

Calcium phosphate stones are actually pretty rare. While calcium oxalate stones comprise about 80% of all instances of nephrolithiasis, calcium phosphate stones typically occur only in a small subset of patients–about 5 to 10% of patients according to…

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