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urinary tract infection

Emphysematous Pyelonephritis

I was asked to see 74 year old man with an acute on chronic kidney injury.  He had 2 days of generalised lower abdominal pain and vomiting but no urinary symptoms or fever.  His past history included advanced…

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Beyond the kidney

Mostly I think about the bladder, in a professional sense, as a possible site for obstruction to be ruled out. Occasionally, when I’m personally reminded about it, I wonder how much urine it can hold. (Pearl from residency:…

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The Uroplakins

We are taught that water is freely diffusable via cell membranes–even in the absence of aquaporin function, there are usually some water molecules which traverse the lipid bilayer.  However, there are tissues within the human body which must…

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Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare but severe complication of chronic UTIs. I think of it (in simplistic terms) as a pyelonephritis so severe that it results in loss of renal function of the affected kidney as well…

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Tamm-Horsfall Protein

It took me until just recently to realize this, but the Tamm-Horsfall protein and uromodulin are two names for the same gene.   As we all know, Tamm-Horsfall protein (discovered by Tamm and Horsfall in 1950) is the…

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