Pearls for Boards

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1) Alkaline urine encourages calcium phosphate nephrolithiasis. Three predisposing factors to watch for – 1) distal RTAs 2) Acetazolamide 3) Topiramate.

2) IgA nephropathy, common in Asians and Native Americans, rare in African Americans.

3) Stay alert for triphasic pattern of water disturbance post neurosurgery or cerebral trauma – hypernatremia, hyponatremia and finally hypernatremia.

4) Long term PPI use can result in hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia and hypokalemia.

5) Renal Malignancy Syndromes: Tuberous sclerosis – Angiomyolipomas and rarely RCC, Von Hippel Lindau – RCC and Pheo, Birt Hogg Dube Syndrome – chromophobe RCC.

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