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Kidney Effects of Liraglutide

Liraglutide (marketed as Victoza or Saxenda) is a glucagon-like peptide -1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that is dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) resistant. It is a once a day subcutaneous injection with doses ranging from 0.6mg to 1.8mg daily. It is…

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Metformin Guidelines

Metformin is one of the most useful drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes and yet its use in patients with CKD is limited by the perceived association with lactic acidosis. These concerns are due to the association…

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Lessons from the Akita mouse

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of ESRD worldwide. While many attempts have been made to develop reliable animal models that mimic human disease—ob/ob, db/db obese diabetes type 2 diabetes models, NOD1 mice, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model…

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Image of the Month – 2

A man in his 50s with a history of diabetes, renal stones, gastric bypass surgery and CKD stage III/IV presented to the clinic with fevers, chills and vague abdominal pain. A urine culture was positive for E Coli…

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Diabetic Nephropathy, or not?

A man in his 30s with a history of type 1 DM and chronic hypokalemia was referred to the renal clinic for investigation of CKD. His creatinine was 1.8g mg/dl.  His DM was well controlled without any evidence…

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Bardoxolone – Part 3

Last year, we had a post about Bardoxolone for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. After one year of treatment, eGFR increased significantly in patients treated with Bardoxolone relative to controls. At the time, significant concerns were raised about…

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