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acid-base

Hyperammonemia in Myeloma: Dialyze?

 A middle aged man with IgG kappa multiple myeloma previously treated with bortezomib and lenalidomide presented to the hospital with altered mental status. He had completed chemotherapy months prior to presentation. Shortly after being admitted, he progressed to…

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Low Anion Gap

Classically, we are taught to look out for an elevated anion gap in patients with a metabolic acidosis. Although much less common, a low anion gap can also be a useful sign and there are a variety of…

There’s no such thing as a contraction alkalosis

We recently discussed an excellent paper on the classification of metabolic alkalosis. The three suggested subtypes were primary and secondary stimulation of collecting duct ion transport and exogenous alkali administration. Another interesting editorial was just published in JASN…

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Don’t forget the vitamins

In the absence of glucose, the brain requires a water-soluble, fat-derived fuel for metabolism and ketoacids serve this function. Unsurprisingly, as a result of this, the main factor controlling the production of ketoacids is the relative lack of…

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Mind the Gap

As Nate mentioned in a previous post, the urinary anion gap is helpful in differentiating whether a non-gap acidosis is of renal or extra-renal origin. Urinary Anion Gap = Na + K – Cl Because the major cation…

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What about the Bicarb?

In our dialysis unit, the standard HCO3 bath is 35 mmol/L. While it is adjustable, it is rarely changed but recently we had a patient with a pre-dialysis HCO3 of 12 which got me thinking about what constitutes…

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