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Panda Eyes

I recently saw an elderly woman in clinic. She had a background history of migraine headaches and had been investigated over the past 18 months for recurrent syncopal episodes. She had at least 5 episodes that began with…

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Bardoxolone – Part 3

Last year, we had a post about Bardoxolone for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. After one year of treatment, eGFR increased significantly in patients treated with Bardoxolone relative to controls. At the time, significant concerns were raised about…

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Under Pressure

As a medical student I was taught the CKD hypertension gospel straight from the good book of JNC VII: Thou shalt lower the blood pressure to less than 130/80! This was many years after David Bowe and Freddie…

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Urine albumin and protein measurement

Continuing the theme of must knows regarding urinalysis: Urine albumin is detected by the urine dipstick via a reaction with tetrabromophenol blue. The reaction produces a colorimetric result depending on the amount of albumin present, which can be…

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It is VITAL that you take your vitamins

The Renin-Angiotensin system is a major mediator of progressive renal injury In CKD and drugs that target the RAS have been shown to slow the progression of glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and proteinuria. However, the effects of even maximal…

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