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urinalysis

Bedside Urinalysis – Blood

All to often now doctors in well-resourced hospitals rely on high tech, expensive and sometimes invasive tests to make a diagnosis. One of the most basic and cheapest tools we have at our disposal is the bedside urine…

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Does that taste bad? – Part 2

Following on from yesterday’s post about turtles who may have a taste of urine in their mouths, here’s an interesting historical diversion about doctors who, in the past, intentionally drank urine to diagnose disease. An article in Scientific…

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Urine albumin and protein measurement

Continuing the theme of must knows regarding urinalysis: Urine albumin is detected by the urine dipstick via a reaction with tetrabromophenol blue. The reaction produces a colorimetric result depending on the amount of albumin present, which can be…

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Urinalysis – concentration

Here are some simple facts about urine specific gravity, osmolality and their determination from the urinalysis. Specific gravity The reference substance for comparative purposes is water, which therefore has a specific gravity of 1.000. The so-called normal ranges…

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Try this in clinic…

It was the usual sort of day in clinic and the team was seeing a middle aged woman with stable diabetic nephropathy and subnephrotic proteinuria. Her blood pressure and blood sugars had been well controlled since the last…

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Differential Diagnosis of Red Urine

Red urine: it’s not always hematuria. The first step in evaluating the patient who complains of grossly red urine is to perform a standard urinalysis, focusing on (a) whether or not the dipstick turns heme-positive, and (b) whether…

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Bence-Jones Protein

I had always assumed that the “Bence-Jones” protein–essentially, the demonstration of monoclonal light chains on urine protein electropheresis (UPEP)–was named after two doctors, Bence & Jones.  However I recently found out that actually it was named after a…

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New Urine Test for Appendicitis

Traditionally surgeons have relied on a well-honed abdominal exam, combined with abdominal imaging usually in the form of an iv-contrast CT scan, to make the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Nevertheless, there remain significant instances of “false negatives” (usually…

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