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Primer on Posterior Urethral Valves

As usually happens when the renal fellows help with the medical student nephrology block, I found myself confronted last week with questions I couldn’t answer. One involved the pathophysiology of posterior urethral valves (PUV), which came up in…

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Beyond the kidney

Mostly I think about the bladder, in a professional sense, as a possible site for obstruction to be ruled out. Occasionally, when I’m personally reminded about it, I wonder how much urine it can hold. (Pearl from residency:…

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Renal Malignancy Syndromes

I had a patient come to see me last week with the rare disorder, Birt Hogg Dube Syndrome (BHD). She was referred with a mildly elevated serum creatinine and microalbuminuria against a background of a single kidney following…

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History of Cystoscopy

I stumbled across a bit of Nephrology/Urology history the other day while strolling around a hospital in Paris: this plaque commemorating one of the key steps in the invention of ureteroscopy and cystoscopy. The plaque can be found…

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The Uroplakins

We are taught that water is freely diffusable via cell membranes–even in the absence of aquaporin function, there are usually some water molecules which traverse the lipid bilayer.  However, there are tissues within the human body which must…

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Transvaginal Nephrectomy

Recently two separate groups have reported the successful carrying out of the first-ever human transvaginal nephrectomy–one report coming from the Cleveland Clinic and another from Venezuela. The surgery is being developed as an even less invasive surgical approach…

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