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Hakan Toka

Secondary forms of hypertension

Lisa Cohen recently summarized rare “genetic” forms of hypertension including Liddle’s syndrome and PHA type II (Gordon’s syndrome). I want to summarize other causes of “secondary” hypertension which are not inherited (at least not typically in a Mendelian…

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Tubulointerstitial disease

ANATOMYThe tubulointerstial tissue is composed of cortex and medulla. The cortex has type 1 cells resembling fibroblasts and produces Epo. Type 2 cells in the cortex resemble dendritic cells capable of Ag presentation. Furthermore the cortex contains types…

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PD University for fellows

I attended a 2-day conference on home dialysis known as “PD University for fellows” sponsored by the International Society for PD (ISPD), Wake Forest University, Baxter and NxStage in Baltimore, MD. This is a free conference for renal…

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An excursion into Magnesium homeostasis

Magnesium (Mg++) is a predominantly intracellular divalent cation which is critical for many metabolic processes and participates in >300 enzymatic reactions. It is essential for many critical transporters including the Sodium/Potassium ATPase cotransporter. Mg++ also has a critical…

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INF2, actin polymerization and FSGS

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a clinicopathologic syndrome manifesting with proteinuria, usually of nephrotic range. Early in the disease process, there is a pattern of glomerular sclerosis that is focal, involving a subset of glomeruli, and segmental, involving…

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